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The History of Animation

This history is part of a forthcoming book on animation by Dan McLaughlin. The book will be published by Focal Press. Its tentative title is: Animation Rules. This web history is by no means complete. Updated versions will be posted here as often as possible. Any comments would be appreciated. This first posting will only be to 2002.

I would like to thank Andy Blaiklock for his help with this research and Amy Winfrey for the wonderful web design.

By Dan McLaughlinA BRIEF PREHISTORYEmil Reynaud (1844 1918) ,France, opened his Theatre Optique in Paris with an archetype of animation created by his invention the Praxinoscope. The Praxinoscope was a theatrical Zoetrope with mirrors placed on an inside column that reflected out the sequential drawings that were on the inside of the drum. He was able to project 80 frames without changing reels and could project 10 to 15 minute "films". But the advent of film drove him out of business and in 1910 he threw all his equipment into a river and died destitute in a sanatorium in 1918. 1893

Thomas Edison invents the Kinetsocope. He had already projected quite useful films onto a wall in his factory, but rather than producing a viewing system for the general public he came up with a machine in which reels of celluloid were not unrolled but stretched over a set of wheels that passed in front of a viewing window. Only one viewer at a time could watch. The Kinetsocope did not have an intermittent movement. This system used a claw movement and perforated film that was synced to an intermittent shutter movement. 1900

James Stuart Blackton (1875 1941) England/US makes "THE ENCHANTED DRAWING." The smile and frown of his drawn characters is achieved by the replacement technique used by Melies in his live action films. It is not considered animation but a prototype of animation, as it is not continuous frame by frame filming. Blackton used a combination of blackboard and chalk drawing and cutouts to achieve animation. The film’s motif was based on the lightning or quick sketch routine from vaudeville where a drawing is done in front of an audience. 1907

"THE HAUNTED HOTEL" is another animated film by James Stuart Blackton. In this film the animation was created by stop motion and effects animation of 3D objects wine poured into a glass, bread cut, and a table set without a human present. The film was a success and introduced 3D animation to the world.

Later that year, Segundo de Chomons (1871 1929), Spain, releases his film "HOTEL ELECTRICO." It used a technique reminiscent of The Haunted Hotel.

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